We always plan for delays and try not to get upset when things inevitably go wrong. Patience is extremely important when traveling!
Make Photocopies of Important Documents
In my early twenties, I was very good about keeping a copy of my passport in a separate bag from my actual passport. Then I got lazy. Recently, a friend of mine lost her passport at the airport. She was told that if she had brought a copy of it and extra passport photos they would have let her travel. Since she didn’t, she was forced to forfeit a $2,000 flight and a week in Europe. I now carry a copy with me.
Pack Extra Underwear
Undies are small and it’s always a good idea to have a few extra pairs in case of emergencies. Another option is to pack these quick-dry underwear so you can easily wash them on the road.
Pre-plan Your Outfits
I’m a lazy, last-minute packer, so I’ve spent too many trips with all black or all grey outfits because I didn’t plan my outfits before packing. I look back at photos and wish I had put more effort into packing.
Bring Lotion in Your Carry-on
I fill both sides of a contact lens case with hydrating lotion (I use this all-natural hydrating lotion) because they rarely have it in the lavatories and airplane cabins are exceptionally dry.
Stay Hydrated on Planes
I know it’s fun to get drunk at 30,000 feet, but it’s also much easier to get dehydrated. Staying hydrated — especially on long-haul flights — makes it easier to get over jet lag too.
Ask The Locals
We always ask the locals to point us to the best restaurants, awesome spots to watch the sunset, the best coffee shops, etc. I do like to tell people what type of food I’m craving though. I’ve been led to some interesting restaurants that wouldn’t have been my first choice.
Beware of Free Public WIFI
I always try to avoid logging into bank accounts or entering any passwords while I’m using free public WIFI at a place like an airport. I’m not as strict about it once I’ve gotten to my hotel, especially if they have a password for their wifi
Alert Your Bank and Credit Card Company of Your Travel Plans
This is a great habit to get into if you don’t want your credit card company or bank to put a hold on your card while you are overseas.
Leave Room for Spontaneity
Don’t plan your entire itinerary ahead of time. It’s tempting, I know, but those unplanned moments while traveling can be the best memories.
Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies in which they evaluate the significance of the hazard and advise on treating and containing it. They also design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems and research the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.
For example, an environmental engineer might work on devising solutions for effective wastewater management. This could include designing systems to treat industrial wastewater, manage municipal water supply, prevent waterborne diseases, and improve the sanitation in cities, recreational areas, and rural locations.
Environmental Engineer Duties & Responsibilities
Some of the duties and responsibilities an environmental engineer might engage in can include the following:
- Make recommendations to maintain and improve environmental performance
- Review environmental regulations, and determine whether they’re being applied properly
- Review stormwater management practices for municipal, industrial, and construction stormwater programs
- Create and maintain air quality management systems that comply with air permits and air regulations
- Report environmental incidents to plant management, including mishaps such as internal spills, external releases, potential permit non-compliances, and upcoming regulatory inspections
- Lead or support the preparation and negotiation of various environmental permit applications
- Interface with different regulatory agencies, prepare needed documentation, schedule required testing, and provide any necessary, additional follow-up documentation
After providing diagnoses, doctors treat patients who are suffering from diseases and injuries. Doctors are also called physicians and they can be either medical doctors (M.D.) or doctors of osteopathic medicine (D.O.).
Both types of physicians use traditional treatment methods such as drugs and surgery, but D.O.s emphasize the body’s musculoskeletal system, preventive medicine, and holistic patient care. Doctors can be primary care physicians or they may specialize in a particular area of medicine such as internal medicine, emergency medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, neurology, pediatrics, geriatrics, psychiatry, endocrinology, ophthalmology, or anesthesiology.
Doctor Duties & Responsibilities
Specific responsibilities vary by specialty, but all doctors need to be able to perform the following duties:
- Assess symptoms
- Diagnose conditions
- Prescribe and administer treatment
- Provide follow-up care of patients, refer them to other providers, and interpret their laboratory results
- Collaborate with physician assistants, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, and other health professionals
- Prescribe medication
- Stay current on medical technology and research
Since doctors are responsible for their patients’ well-being, this occupation is more demanding than most. In addition to having a comprehensive knowledge of medicine, they need to be able to communicate their findings to patients who typically do not possess the same knowledge. They work with people when they are at their most vulnerable and this requires empathy in addition to the required technical knowledge.
Teachers help their students learn and apply concepts in a wide variety of subjects including math, social studies, art, music, language arts, and science. They work in public and private schools helping children acquire skills that allow them to solve problems and develop critical thought processes.
Do you have what it takes to be a teacher? If you major in education, you will graduate with the hard skills you need to instruct children, but the job of a teacher is complex. It requires skills and qualities you won’t learn in school. These are known as soft skills. Either you are born with them or you have to develop them somewhere along the way.
To be an effective teacher, among your qualities must be creativity and sensitivity to children’s needs. You must also have superior organizational, listening, and verbal communication skills. Additionally, you need the ability to motivate children, and they and their parents must find you trustworthy and patient.
Assess whether you have those soft skills, or if you are willing to make a concerted effort to develop them. If you possess the traits necessary to succeed in this field, it is time to move forward and figure out what you must do to meet the educational requirements to become a teacher
Educating the Educators
Which path you take to a teaching career will depend on several factors. They include whether you want to teach in a public or private school, where you want to work, what grade you prefer, whether you want to teach special education students, and the subject area in which you want to specialize if any. The level of education you previously attained, namely whether you already have a bachelor’s degree, will also make a difference.
Public or Private School? Public school teachers working anywhere in the United States must have at least a bachelor’s degree. Private school teachers often need one as well. It usually takes four years to earn one.
Where Do You Want to Work? The state in which you want to work could determine your requirements, particularly if you don’t want to get a degree in education and instead major in another subject.
Traditionally, one had to get a bachelor’s degree in education to get licensed in any state. Most states, now, are a bit more flexible and have changed their licensing requirements to allow degrees in other majors. Those who go this route may still need to complete teacher training coursework.
What Grade Level Do You Want to Teach? You will enroll in a training program specific to your preferred grade level: Early Childhood Education (usually preschool to Grade 3), Elementary Education (Kindergarten through Grade 6), or Secondary Education (Grades 7 through 12).
Elementary school teachers cover a broad range of subject matter in the classroom, and their training reflects this. While in college, they learn how to teach many subjects including language arts, mathematics, science, art, and music. Those who are training for a career in secondary education focus on a single one.
Do You Want to Teach Regular or Special Education Students? If you want to work with students who have special needs, you must receive specialized training. It is often lengthier than the preparation for regular education teachers.
Babysitting jobs aren’t just for high school and college students; older adults and stay-at-home parents who want to earn extra income are also caring for kids. Here are some tips for finding a babysitting job.
Preparing for Babysitting Work
Learn basic safety and first aid as well as how to respond to common emergencies. Parents are trusting you with their most valuable possession–let them know that you’re trained and prepared for any crisis that might arise. Learn how to handle situations such as:
- Minor cuts
- Falls and head injuries
- Getting locked out of the house
- A fire
- An intruder
- A child running off
Get certified in first aid and CPR–this will not only give you a leg up to stand out from your competition but you can also charge more by bringing additional skills to the table. Parents will likely pay a premium if they know you’re trained to save a life.
Learn about child behavior and discipline. How will you handle a kid who cries incessantly, throws a tantrum, hits you or refuses to take a bath? What about siblings who won’t stop fighting? Coursework in child behavior and child psychology can arm you with strategies along with interning in a nursery school or daycare.
Finding Babysitting Work
Network.Let your friends and family know you’re available for babysitting. Ask your parents to tell their friends, as well. If there are families with young children in your neighborhood, hang out at the playground and introduce yourself!
Get a referral.Do you know someone who’s graduating from school and going to college? If they have a babysitting job, inquire if you can take over their clientele.
Check with your school. Try your guidance office or college career office for a list of babysitting jobs.
Job sites. Register with sites like SitterCity. Jobs posting are specific, detailing the hourly wage and strict requirement and rules regarding things like cell phone usage, driving requirements, meal preparation, help with homework and more.
Check bulletin boards. Look on bulletin boards in coffee shops, community centers, gyms and the library.
Find moms’ groups. Seek out mom’s clubs and church groups; pass out flyers or post about services on their forums.
Securing Babysitting Work
Be prepared: Answer questions that will impress parents and win their confidence. Do you know how to use a fire extinguisher? Stop bleeding? Deal with a screaming baby?
Plan activities: Let parents know how you intend to entertain the kids with activities appropriate for their age. Check sites like Zero to Three and Care.com for ideas.
Check-in, show up and follow through: Once you snag one babysitting job, turn the parents into repeat clients by demonstrating your professionalism. Call or text beforehand to make sure they still need you at the specified time. Arrive on time, even a few minutes early to give parents time to walk you through any details and instructions. And lastly, carry out their wishes–whether that’s no snacking after dinner or having the kids in bed by 9.
Check out the family before you accept a job: Ask for references, including people who have worked for the family in the past. Suggest meeting at a library or playground at first–the children will be more at ease and you can get to know the family on neutral territory.
Interested in becoming a nurse? Here’s information on nursing education and experience requirements, where to find job listings, and tips for acing an interview.
Types of Nurses
There are many different types of nurses, but most fall into the categories of LPN, RN, or NP.
Licensed Practitioner Nurses , in some states called Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVNs), do basic patient care under the supervision of doctors or more highly trained nurses. They can enter the field simply by taking a short training program and passing a test. Some find that an associate degree provides more career flexibility for the same certification. While the certification itself is national, state requirements for practice vary, so make sure your training program is approved by the state where you wish to work.
Nurse Practitioners can do much of the work doctors normally do, though state law varies. To become an NP, first become an RN, then complete a graduate program, a required number of clinical hours, and an additional test. Additional, more focused training may also be required. Some NPs earn doctorates, especially if they want to get into administrative work.
Registered Nurses have more responsibility and make more money than LPNs. To become an RN, complete an associate or bachelor’s degree program, and complete a national test. Some states may require additional steps for state licensure. Periodic re-testing is also required. A master’s degree opens up further career options.
Requirements for Registered Nurses
Registered nurses must complete coursework in nursing, anatomy, physiology, psychology, biology, microbiology, and chemistry as part of a bachelor’s degree, associate’s degree, or hospital-based diploma program. In order to be licensed, registered nurses must pass the National Council Licensure Examination after completing a state-approved academic program.
Registered nurses must have sufficient scientific aptitude to master the required science coursework and learn the medical concepts which form the foundation of nursing. They need to have the capacity to remember scientific, pharmaceutical, and medical terminology.
Registered nurses need to have a caring and empathic nature to connect with patients and provide the support critical to their recovery. They must be able to do so while maintaining sufficient emotional distance to avoid internalizing patient problems. Patience is required to deal with patients who react to their illness with strong emotions or need to have information repeated many times.
Registered nurses must have strong communications skills to convey complex information in simple terms to patients and to interact effectively with other hospital staff. Problem-solving and critical thinking skills are needed to interpret emerging information about the health status of patients. Registered nurses must be well organized and detail-oriented to keep track of multiple patients.
In order to gain admission to nursing programs, you will need to demonstrate that you are comfortable interacting with sick or injured people. Volunteer at a local hospital or nursing home while you are in high school, if possible. Working as a paramedic or getting certified as a nurse’s aide are other ways for you to gain clinical experience.
Stress is the body’s reaction to any change that requires an adjustment or response. The body reacts to these changes with physical, mental, and emotional responses. Stress is a normal part of life. You can experience stress from your environment, your body, and your thoughts. Even positive life changes such as a promotion, a mortgage, or the birth of a child produce stress.
How does stress affect health?
The human body is designed to experience stress and react to it. Stress can be positive, keeping us alert, motivated, and ready to avoid danger. Stress becomes negative when a person faces continuous challenges without relief or relaxation between stressors. As a result, the person becomes overworked, and stress-related tension builds. The body’s autonomic nervous system has a built-in stress response that causes physiological changes to allow the body to combat stressful situations. This stress response, also known as the “fight or flight response”, is activated in case of an emergency. However, this response can become chronically activated during prolonged periods of stress. Prolonged activation of the stress response causes wear and tear on the body – both physical and emotional.
Stress also becomes harmful when people engage in the compulsive use of substances or behaviors to try to relieve their stress. These substances or behaviors include food, alcohol, tobacco, drugs, gambling, sex, shopping, and the Internet. Rather than relieving the stress and returning the body to a relaxed state, these substances and compulsive behaviors tend to keep the body in a stressed state and cause more problems. The distressed person becomes trapped in a vicious circle.
Physical symptoms of stress include:
- Low energy.
- Upset stomach, including diarrhea, constipation, and nausea.
- Aches, pains, and tense muscles.
- Chest pain and rapid heartbeat.
- Frequent colds and infections.
- Loss of sexual desire and/or ability.
Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It can alert us to dangers and help us prepare and pay attention. Anxiety disorders differ from normal feelings of nervousness or anxiousness, and involve excessive fear or anxiety. Anxiety disorders are the most common of mental disorders and affect nearly 30 percent of adults at some point in their lives. . But anxiety disorders are treatable and a number of effective treatments are available. Treatment helps most people lead normal productive lives.Anxiety refers to anticipation of a future concern and is more associated with muscle tension and avoidance behavior.
Types of Anxiety Disorders
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder
- Phobias, Specific Phobia
- Social Anxiety Disorder
- Separation Anxiety Disorder
The first step is to see your doctor to make sure there is no physical problem causing the symptoms. If an anxiety disorder is diagnosed, a mental health professional can work with you on the best treatment. Unfortunately, many people with anxiety disorders don’t seek help. They don’t realize that they have an illness that has effective treatments.
Although each anxiety disorder has unique characteristics, most respond well to two types of treatment: psychotherapy, or “talk therapy,” and medications. These treatments can be given alone or in combination. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), a type of talk therapy, can help a person learn a different way of thinking, reacting and behaving to help feel less anxious. Medications will not cure anxiety disorders, but can give significant relief from symptoms. The most commonly used medications are anti-anxiety medications (generally prescribed only for a short period of time) and antidepressants. Beta-blockers, used for heart conditions, are sometimes used to control physical symptoms of anxiety.
Being physically active means sitting down less and moving our bodies more.Many people find that physical activity helps them maintain positive mental health, either on its own, or in combination with other treatments.This doesn’t have to mean running marathons or training every day at the gym.Your brain is no different than rest of the muscles in your body–you either use it or you lose it. You utilize the gym to stimulate the growth of muscle cells, just as you use a brain fitness program to increase connections in your brain. But you can actually get an additional brain boost by donning your sneakers and hitting the gym.
Tips for choosing exercise
- In general, anything that is good for your heart is great for your brain.
- Aerobic exercise is great for body and brain: not only does it improve brain function, but it also acts as a “first aid kit” on damaged brain cells.
- Aerobic exercise is great for body and brain: not only does it improve brain function, but it also acts as a “first aid kit” on damaged brain cells.
- When looking to change up your work out, look for an activity that incorporates coordination along with cardiovascular exercise, such as a dance class.
Exercise affects the brain on multiple fronts. It increases heart rate, which pumps more oxygen to the brain. It also aids the bodily release of a plethora of hormones, all of which participate in aiding and providing a nourishing environment for the growth of brain cells.
Mental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in emotion, thinking or behavior (or a combination of these). Mental illnesses are associated with distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or family activities.
Mental health is the foundation for emotions, thinking, communication, learning, resilience and self-esteem. Mental health is also key to relationships, personal and emotional well-being and contributing to community or society.
Many people who have a mental illness do not want to talk about it. But mental illness is nothing to be ashamed of! It is a medical condition, just like heart disease or diabetes. And mental health conditions are treatable. We are continually expanding our understanding of how the human brain works, and treatments are available to help people successfully manage mental health conditions.
Mental illness does not discriminate; it can affect anyone regardless of your age, gender, geography, income, social status, race/ethnicity, religion/spirituality, sexual orientation, background or other aspect of cultural identity. While mental illness can occur at any age, three-fourths of all mental illness begins by age 24.
- anxiety: excessive worry or fears.
- depression: persistent sad or low mood.
- unusual or illogical thoughts.
- unreasonable anger or irritability.
- poor concentration and memory, not being able to follow a conversation.
- hearing voices which no one else can perceive.
- increased or decreased sleep.
- not performing as well at school or work.
The symptoms of mental illness can come and go throughout a person’s life.Mental health problems affect society as a whole, and not just a small, isolated segment.